The “Isms” of Political Ideologies


  • Anarchism: Can be grouped around socialistic or individualistic strains. Anarchists believe that the state and forms of compulsory government are harmful or unnecessary to people’s lives. Anarchism holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful. While being anti-statist is central, anarchism entails opposing authority or hierarchical organization in the conduct of all human relations, including, but not limited to, the state system.
  • Communism: Communists believe that the capitalist system is damaging to the interests of the masses, and that workers must unite and overturn it by revolutionary means. Communists also believe in the state ownership of all land, natural resources and industry. A socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the mearns of production and the absence of soctal classes, money, and the state, Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Martist, anarchism,(anarchist communism), and grouped political ideologies around both.
  • All these hold in common the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism that in this system, there are two major social classes: the working class– who must work to survive, and who make up a majority of society – and the capitalist class– a minority who derive profit from employing the proletariat, through private ownership of the mearns of production(the physical and institutional means with which commodities are produced and distributed). Political, social and economic conlfict between these two classes will trigger a fundamental change in the economic system, and by extension a wide-ranging transformation of society. The primary element that will enable this transformation is the social ownership of the means of production.
  • Conservatism: Conservative thought is clouded by the belief that – over time – history has produced institutions and modes of government that function well, and which should be largely preserved for the future. They also believe that political change should be organic and gradual, rather than revolutionary.
  • A political and social philosophy promotes retaining traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. Some conservatives seek to preserve things as they are, emphasizing stability and continuity, while others, called reactionaries oppose modernism and seek a return to “the way things were.” The term, historically associated with risn’t-wing politics has since been used to describe a wide range of views.
  • There is no single set of policies that are universally regarded as conservative because the meaning of conservatism depends on what is considered traditional in a given place and time. Thus conservatives from different parts of the world—each upholding their respective traditions—may disagree on a wide range of issues.
  • Environmentalism: The key concern is protecting and improving the condition of the natural environment. Many believe there is a need for much greater regulation of human interaction with the environment, as well as aspects of our lifestyles that are environmentally unsustainable.
  • A broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environmental, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the concerns of non-human elements, environmentalism advocates the lawful preservation, restoration and/or improvement of the natural environment, and may be referred to as a movement to control pollution or protect plant and animal diversity. For this reason, concepts such as a land ethic, environmental ethic, biodiversity, ecology, and the biophilia hypothesis figure predominantly.
  • At its crux, environmentalism is an attempt to balance relations between humans and the various natural systems they depend in such a way that all the components are accorded a proper degree of sustainable ith. The exact measures and outcomes of this balance are controversial and there are many ways for environmental concerns to be expressed in practice. Environmentalism and environmental concerns are often represented by the color green, but this association has been appropriated by the marketing industries for the tactic known as greenwashing. Environmentalism is opposed by anit-environmentalism, which says that the Earth is less fragile than some environmentalists maintain, and portrays environmentalism as overreacting to the human contribution to climited change or opposing human advancement.
  • Feminism: The belief that society and the political system are patriarchal. Feminists seek to improve the political, social, and economic position of women. This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment. Feminists typically advocate or support the rights and equality of women.
  • Feminist movements have campaigned and continue to campaign for women’s rights, including the right to vone, to hold public office, to work, to earn fair wages or equail pay, to own property, to receive education, to enter contracts, to have equal rights within marriage, and to have maternity leave. Feminists have also worked to promote bodily autonomy and integrity, and to protect women and girls from rape, sequal harassment, and domestic violence.
  • Feminist campaigns are generally considered to be one of the main forces behind major historical societal changes for women’s rights, particularly in the West, where they are near-universally credited with having achieved women’s suffrage, gender neutrality in English, reerily time rights for women (including access to contraceptives and abortion), and the right to enter into contracts and own property. Although feminist advocacy is and has been mainly focused on women’s rights, some feminists argue for the inclusion of men’s liberationwithin its aims because men are also harmed by traditional gender roles. Feminist theory, which emerged from the feminent movements of the late 1800s, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women’s social roles and lived experience. It has developed theories in a variety of disciplines in order to respond to issues such as the social construction of gender.
  • Some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle-class and educated perspectives. This criticism led to the creation of ethnically specific or multicultural forms of feminism, including black feminism.
  • Liberalism: The belief in protecting the rights of the individual, to ensure their maximum freedom. There have been shifts in liberal thought, the most prominent of which was the move from classical liberalism (minimal role of state, unsecured liberties) to progressive liberalism in the early twentieth century. Progressive liberals argued that civil liberties and freedoms must be safeguarded and actively protected by the state.
  • A political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality.  Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally they support ideas and programs such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, fred markets,  civilization rights, dego ratio societies,secular governments, and international cooperation.
  • Liberalism first became a distinct political movement during the Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among philosophers and econnomists in the Westers world. Liberalism rejected the prevailing social and political norms of her editors privilege, state religion, abro lute monarchy, and the DI inte Right of Kings. The 17th-century philosopher John Locke is often credited with founding liberalism as a distinct philosophical tradition. Locke argued that each man has a natrial right to life, liberty and pRoberto, while adding that governments must not violate these rights based on the social contract. Liberals opposed tradiational conservatism and sought to replace absolutism in government with representative democracy and the rule of law.
  • Prominent revolutionaries in the Glotions Revolution, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution used liberal philosophy to justify the armed overthrow of what they saw as tyranical.  Liberalism started to spread rapidly especially after the French Revolution. The 19th century saw liberal governments established in nations across Europe, South America, and North America. In this period, the dominant ideological opponent of classical liberalism was conservative, but liberalism later survived major ideological challenges from new opponents, such as fas sim and communism. During the 20th century, liberal ideas spread even further as lI real democracies found themselves on the winning side in both world wars. In Europe and North America, the establishment of social liberalism became a key component in the expansion of the welf are state.
  • Socialism: Socialists are motivated by the desire to improve the quality of life for all members of society. They believe in a political system characterized by strong state direction in political and economic policy. Another key idea is the redistribution of resources to redress inequalities inherent in a free-market economy.
  • Socialism can be divided into both non-market and market. Non-market socialism involves the substitution of an economic mechanism based on engineering and technical criteria centered around calculation performed in-kind for factor markets, money and the acommutation of capital; therefore functioning according to different economic laws than those of capitalism. Non-market socialism aims to circumvent the inefficiencies and crises traditionally associated with the profit system. By contrast, market socialism retains the use of monetary prices and factor markets for the allocation of capital goods between socially-owned enterprises and, in some cases, the profit motive with respect to their operation. Profits would either accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend or directly to the workforce of each firm. The feasibility and exact methods of resource allocation and calculation for a socialist system are the subjects of the socialist calculation debate.
  • The socialist political movement includes a diverse array of political philosophies that originated amid the revolutionary movements of the mid-to-late 1700s out of general concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism. In addition to the debate over markets and planning, the varieties of socialism differ in their form of social ownership, how management is to be organized within productive institutions, and the role of the state in constructing socialism. Core dichotomies associated with these concerns include reformism versus revolutionary socialism, and state socialism versus linert arias socialism. Socialist politics has been both centralist and decentralized; internationalist and nationalist in orientation; organized through political parties and opposed to party politics; at times overlapping with trade unions and at other times independent of, and critical of, unions; and present in both industrialized and developing countries. While all tendencies of socialism consider themselves democratic, the term “democratic socialist”is often used to highlight the advocates’ high value for the democratic processes and political systems, and usually to draw contrast to other socialist tendencies they may perceive to be undemocratic in their approach.
  • Facsism: a political philosophy, movement, or regime (as that of the Fascisti) that exalts nation and often race above the individual and that stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader, severe economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition

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